Genographic Project – Daniel Iversen – The Results

Pubblicato: 22 novembre 2013 da ive in Uncategorized

genographic_project

ME UNBOXING THE GENOGRAPHIC KIT, in ITALIAN

The “Genographic Project” DOCUMENTARY – HOW TO START KNOWING ABOUT THIS AWESOME PROJECT

RESULTS – Daniel Lebech Nässling Iversen

 

MATERNAL LINE

Schermata 2013-11-21 a 22.58.28The string of characters displayed here is your full haplogroup. It is comprised of the letters and numbers representing various markers that identify small infrequent changes in DNA and help create an individual’s own unique pattern. This full string helps further refine our understanding of your migratory path. Click here to learn more.

La stringa di caratteri qui di fianco è il tuo aplogruppo

JUMP TO PATERNAL LINE

The common direct maternal ancestor to all women alive today was born in East Africa around 180,000 years ago. Though not the only woman alive at the time, hers is the only line to survive into current generations.From East Africa, groups containing this lineage spread across Africa. Between 60 and 70 thousand years ago, some groups moved from Africa to Asia. Your line traces to one of these groups.Your branch of this lineage settled West Asia and most descendants remained there until around 27,000 years ago. Members of this branch then spread toward Europe and back toward Africa and the Levant region.

INTRODUCTION TO YOUR STORY

We will now take you back through the stories of your distant ancestors and show how the movements of their descendants gave rise to your lineage.

Each segment on the map above represents the migratory path of successive groups that eventually coalesced to form your branch of the tree. We start with the marker for your oldest ancestor, and walk forward to more recent times, showing at each step the line of your ancestors who lived up to that point.

What is a marker? Each of us carries DNA that is a combination of genes passed from both our mother and father, giving us traits that range from eye color and height to athleticism and disease susceptibility. As part of this process, the Y-chromosome is passed directly from father to son, unchanged, from generation to generation down a purely male line. Mitochondrial DNA, on the other hand, is passed from mothers to their children, but only their daughters pass it on to the next generation. It traces a purely maternal line.

The DNA is passed on unchanged, unless a mutation—a random, naturally occurring, usually harmless change—occurs. The mutation, known as a marker, acts as a beacon; it can be mapped through generations because it will be passed down for thousands of years.

When geneticists identify such a marker, they try to figure out when it first occurred, and in which geographic region of the world. Each marker is essentially the beginning of a new lineage on the family tree of the human race. Tracking the lineages provides a picture of how small tribes of modern humans in Africa tens of thousands of years ago diversified and spread to populate the world.

By looking at the markers you carry, we can trace your lineage, ancestor by ancestor, to reveal the path they traveled as they moved out of Africa. Our story begins with your earliest ancestor. Who were they, where did they live, and what is their story? Click “Next” to begin.

FIRST STEP OUT OF AFRICA – MATERNAL LINE

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SECOND MATERNAL LINE STEP

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THIRD MATERNAL STEP

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FOURTH MATERNAL STEP

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FIFTH MATERNAL STEP

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TODAY? MATERNAL LINE HEATMAP

This key represents the frequency of your ancestors in more recent times (time ranges vary), with red for high concentrations.

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PATERNAL LINE

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The common direct paternal ancestor of all men alive today was bornin Africa around 140,000 years ago. He was neither the first human male nor the only male alive in his time. He was the only male whose direct lineage is present in current generations. Most men, including your direct paternal ancestors, trace their ancestry to one of this man’s descendants.

Your branch of this lineage traveled with out-of-Africa migrants to Asia. From there, they journeyed west to Europe. With the end of the last ice age, your ancestors helped resettle Europe.

FIRST PATERNAL STEP

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SECOND PATERNAL STEP

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THIRD PATERNAL STEP

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FOURTH PATERNAL STEP

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TODAY ? PATERNAL LINE HEATMAP

This key represents the frequency of your ancestors in more recent times (time ranges vary), with red for high concentrations.

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WHO AM I?

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We are all more than the sum of our parts, but the results below offer some of the most dramatic and fascinating information in your Geno 2.0 test. In this section, we display your affiliations with a set of nine world regions. This information is determined from your entire genome so we’re able to see both parents’ information, going back six generations. Your percentages reflect both recent influences and ancient genetic patterns in your DNA due to migrations as groups from different regions mixed over thousands of years. Your ancestors also mixed with ancient, now extinct hominid cousins like Neanderthals in Europe and the Middle East or the Denisovans in Asia. If you have a very mixed background, the pattern can get complicated quickly! Use the reference population matches below to help understand your particular result.

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Schermata 2013-11-22 a 00.11.18NORTHERN EUROPEAN

This component of your ancestry is found at highest frequency in northern European populations—people from the UK, Denmark, Finland, Russia and Germany in our reference populations. While not limited to these groups, it is found at lower frequencies throughout the rest of Europe. This component is likely the signal of the earliest hunter-gatherer inhabitants of Europe, who were the last to make the transition to agriculture as it moved in from the Middle East during the Neolithic period around 8,000 years ago.

Schermata 2013-11-22 a 00.12.13MEDITERRANEAN

This component of your ancestry is found at highest frequencies in southern Europe and the Levant—people from Sardinia, Italy, Greece, Lebanon, Egypt and Tunisia in our reference populations. While not limited to these groups, it is found at lower frequencies throughout the rest of Europe, the Middle East, Central and South Asia. This component is likely the signal of the Neolithic population expansion from the Middle East, beginning around 8,000 years ago, likely from the western part of the Fertile Crescent.

Schermata 2013-11-22 a 00.12.48SOUTHWEST ASIAN

This component of your ancestry is found at highest frequencies in India and neighboring populations, including Tajikistan and Iran in our reference dataset. It is also found at lower frequencies in Europe and North Africa. As with the Mediterranean component, it was likely spread during the Neolithic expansion, perhaps from the eastern part of the Fertile Crescent. Individuals with heavy European influence in their ancestry will show traces of this because all Europeans have mixed with people from Southwest Asia over tens of thousands of years.

Schermata 2013-11-22 a 00.13.25NORTHEAST ASIAN

This component of your ancestry is found at highest frequencies in the populations of northeast Asia—people from Japan, China and Mongolia in our reference populations. It is also found at lower frequencies in southeast Asia and India, where it likely arrived in the past 10,000 years with the expansion of rice farmers coming from further north. Interestingly, it is also found at a frequency of 5-10% in the Finns, likely introduced by the migrations of the Saami people from Siberia into Finland over the past 5,000 years.

Schermata 2013-11-22 a 00.13.59NATIVE AMERICAN

This component of your ancestry is found at highest frequency in the populations of the Americas. It represents the signal of the original settlers of North and South America who arrived via the Bering land bridge between 15-20,000 years ago. Interestingly, the only other place in the world where it is found—at frequencies of 2-3%—is in central Siberia and Mongolia, the likely place of origin of the first Native Americans.

WHAT YOUR RESULTS MEAN

Modern day indigenous populations around the world carry particular blends of these regions. We compared your DNA results to the reference populations we currently have in our database and estimated which of these were most similar to you in terms of the genetic markers you carry. This doesn’t necessarily mean that you belong to these groups or are directly from these regions, but that these groups were a similar genetic match and can be used as a guide to help determine why you have a certain result. Remember, this is a mixture of both recent (past six generations) and ancient patterns established over thousands of years, so you may see surprising regional percentages. Read each of the population descriptions below to better interpret your particular result.

YOUR FIRST REFERENCE POPULATION:      FINNISH

This reference population is based on samples collected from people native to Finland. The dominant 57% Northern European component likely reflects the earliest settlers in Europe, hunter-gatherers who arrived there more than 35,000 years ago. The 17% Mediterranean and 17% Southwest Asian percentages arrived later, with the spread of agriculture from the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, over the past 10,000 years. As these early farmers moved into Europe, they spread their genetic patterns as well. Today, northern European populations retain the links to both earliest Europeans and these later migrants from the Middle East. The 7% Northeast Asian component reflects mixing with native Siberian populations, particularly the reindeer-herding Saami people of far northern Scandinavia.

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YOUR SECOND REFERENCE POPULATION: IBERIAN (SPAIN & PORTUGAL)

This reference population is based on samples collected from people native to Spain and Portugal. The 48% Mediterranean and 13% Southwest Asian percentages reflect the strong influence of agriculturalists from the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, who arrived here more than 8,000 years ago. The 37% Northern European component likely comes from the pre-agricultural population of Europe—the earliest settlers, who arrived more than 35,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic period. Today, this component predominates in northern European populations, while the Mediterranean component is more common in southern Europe.

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YOUR HOMINID ANCESTRY

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When our ancestors first migrated out of Africa around 60,000 years ago, they were not alone. At that time, at least two other species of hominid cousins walked the Eurasian landmass: Neanderthals and Denisovans. Most non-Africans are about 2% Neanderthal. The Denisovan component of your Geno 2.0 results is more experimental, as we are still working to determine the best way to assess the percentage Denisovan ancestry you carry. The evolution of this data is another way you are actively involved in helping advance knowledge of anthropological genetics!

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WHY AM I NEANDERTAL ?

WHY AM I DENISOVAN?

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